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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2020
Volume 3 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 133-176

Online since Tuesday, September 8, 2020

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From flummoxed to focused: A mixed-methods study of preventive practices during the COVID-19 pandemic among intern doctors working in a rural tertiary care hospital of Maharashtra, India p. 133
Mandar Baviskar, Anup Kharde, Shubham Gadekar, Shubham Sheth, Akshata Chordiya
Introduction: Intern doctors are important in the functioning of a teaching hospital. Their health and sanitation practices can, therefore, influence disease transmission rates. Methods: A simultaneous quantitative + qualitative study was conducted on 110 intern doctors working in a rural tertiary care hospital. Percentage values and Chi-square tests were used to compare responses in male and female interns and triangulation-incorporated qualitative inputs. Results: Overall, the practices were sound, but lapses in the protocol were reported, especially in areas with higher patient footfall. Females were more likely to follow proper hand hygiene (P = 0.042), use alcohol based sanitizer and keep it on their person (P = 0.017), use gloves as instructed (P = 0.02). And males diligently observed social distancing (P = 0.0001), and followed mobile phone hygiene (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Despite the scale of pandemic, interns have tried their best to follow guidelines and commonsense measures. Clear protocols, positive reinforcement, and monitoring can prevent lapses in preventive measures.
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Determinants of teenage marital pregnancy among bangladeshi women: An analysis by the cox proportional hazard model p. 137
Md Alamgir Sarder, Sharlene Alauddin, Benojir Ahammed
Introduction: Teenage marital pregnancy is a critical issue responsible for complex and life threatening health problems of both mother and children. This study aimed to determine various demographic, socioeconomic, and spatial factors responsible for teenage pregnancy in Bangladesh. Methods: This study used Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2014 data. A sample of 4,608 teenage (age<20years) married women were included in the analysis. Kaplan Meier Product Limit approach was used to estimate the mean and median teenage pregnancy, and the log-rank test was used to test whether two (or more) groups were equal or not. Finally, Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the risk factors of teenage pregnancy. Results: Among participants, approximately 90% had experienced teenage pregnancy. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the teenage pregnancy was 17.7 (±2.79) years. Among the demographic and socioeconomic factors, women's and their husband's lower education, lowest wealth index, Islamic faith, unemployment, and no access to mass media were the risk factors associated with the teenage pregnancy. Furthermore, spatial variables, residence in Rangpur division, and rural areas also had higher odds of getting pregnant at teenage. Conclusion: Government should initiate different protective and preventive measures to minimize early marriage and pregnancy, including improvement of female enrolment and completion rate of education, encouragement of female employment opportunities to increase wealth index for women through financial support and technical skill development, and reinforcement family planning utilization using religious texts and knowledge among people at individual and community levels.
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Psychosocial burden of caregivers taking care of children in the children's emergency room of two tertiary hospitals in Southeast Nigeria p. 144
Ikenna K Ndu, Chidiebere D I Osuorah, Ezinne I Nwaneli, Uchenna Ekwochi, Isaac N Asinobi, Kenechukwu K Iloh, Obinna C Nduagubam
Introduction: In this study, we sought to determine the severity of caregiving burden among caregivers of children presenting to the emergency room and analyze its associated predictors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, study carried out on 332 caregivers of children admitted into the children emergency room (CHER) of two tertiary hospitals in Southeast Nigeria. A validated structured questionnaire was administered by an interviewer with the use of an interpreter where necessary. Results: A total of three hundred and thirty-two child–caregiver dyads were enrolled for this study. Fathers were 25.6%, mother 65.4%, and nonparent made up 9.0% of primary caregivers of child in index admission. The mean age of the enrolled children was 2.5 ± 1.9 years with age ranges of 1 month to 16 years. Male-to-female ratio was approximately 0.8. Two hundred and fifty-four (80.6%) of surveyed caregivers experienced high psychosocial burden. On the average, caregivers were faced with moderate burden in the CHER during care of their sick child with a mean caregiver burden score of 1.64 ± 0.67. Caregivers looking after independent children (odds ratio [OR]: 0.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2–0.9; P = 0.05), partially dependent children (OR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.3–0.9; P = 0.040), and those with someone assisting them in the care of admitted and/or children at home (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2–1.0; P = 0.050) were less likely to experience high psychosocial burden of care as compared with caregivers looking after dependent children and those with no assistance. Conclusion: There is a need to incorporate comprehensive psychosocial and instinctive support for caregivers during the care of their sick children in the emergency room.
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“Infodemic” in a pandemic: COVID-19 conspiracy theories in an african country p. 152
Olusoji S Olatunji, Olusola Ayandele, Doyin Ashirudeen, Oluwatosin S Olaniru
Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), being the first pandemic to occur in the digital communications era, is rife with “infodemic” of misinformation and conspiracy theories. This article explored popular conspiracy theories about COVID-19 in Nigeria and highlighted the sources of COVID-19 information among Nigerians and perceived trustworthiness of the information sources. It also identified various inaccurate information and conspiracy claims reported by traditional media in Nigeria. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among a sample of 736 undergraduate students of a public tertiary institution in Nigeria. A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants through social media platforms. Google Forms was used to host an anonymous questionnaire and the link sent to the Facebook and WhatsApp groups of students' associations. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. The data collection was initiated on May 27 and closed on June 5, 2020. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted on participants' responses. Results: COVID-19 infection in Nigeria is seen as “an exaggeration by the government and media,” and as a “Chinese biological weapon.” Traditional media is the most popular source of information about COVID-19. Nigeria Centre of Diseases Control is the most trusted source of COVID-19 information, while information from political leaders and social media was perceived as untrustworthy. Conclusion: COVID-19 conspiracy theories were driven majorly on social media, by a dearth of trust in political leadership and “breaking” of inaccurate coronavirus news by traditional media. Stakeholders need to collaborate to debunk conspiracy theories.
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Socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with low birth weight in Nepal: Data from 2016 Nepal demographic and health survey p. 158
Benojir Ahammed, Md Maniruzzaman, Farzana Ferdausi, Md Menhazul Abedin, Md Tanvir Hossain
Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) is an essential component for child mortality, and it also has dangerous effects on the mother's health. This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of the LBW among Nepalese children as well as to identify its socioeconomic and demographic determinants. Methods: For this study, 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data was used; 2,618 women having child were considered as respondents under precise specifications. The LBW of children was defined as birth weight <2500g. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression model were used to determine the risk factors of LBW based on the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) along with 95% confidence interval (CI) and P value (P < 0.05). Results: The overall prevalence of LBW in Nepal was 12.9% (95% CI: 11.6%–14.6%). The results of the multivariate analysis show that twin children (AOR: 22.538; 95% CI: 8.706–58.343) and female children (AOR: 1.444; 95% CI: 1.132–1.841) had a higher risk of LBW. Maternal age was also an important factor affecting LBW as findings suggest that the LBW tend to decrease with an increase of mother's age. Findings also indicate that children of the educated father with higher wealth status, maternal intake of iron tablets/syrup during pregnancy, and families having more than one child were safeguarding against LBW in Nepal. Conclusion: Risk factors of LBW are still problematic and unresolved in Nepal. Therefore, the implementation of social as well as health awareness programs, including maternal, neonatal and child health, are expected to introduce to curb LBW.
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The predictive role of social intelligence in successful aging in the elderly p. 166
Mohammad Ali Soleimani, Fatemeh Mohammadi, Maryam Mafi, Akram Zakani
Introduction: Successful aging is a concept that seemingly provides a good approach to increase an individual's success in old age. The results of studies have shown that various factors can predict a successful aging. Social intelligence is one of the parameters that can predict a person's success in life. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 288 elderly people in the city of Karaj who were selected at first by cluster sampling method and then by convenience sampling method. In order to evaluate successful aging (based on Rowe and Kahn's theory), the following questionnaires were used in addition to emphasizing the absence of chronic disease: World Health Organization's mental well-being questionnaire, Katz physical functioning questionnaire, and Duke social support and interaction questionnaire. To investigate the social intelligence, the Tromso social intelligence questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed by a descriptive test and also logistic regression in SPSS software version 22. Results: The mean age of the elderly was 65.24 ± 5.10. The successful aging rate was 7.3%. In logistic regression analysis, social intelligence significantly predicted successful aging. Moreover, variables of body mass index, previous job, level of religious beliefs, marital status, education level, the person they were living with and the use of assistive devices had a significant correlation with successful aging. Conclusion: Due to the high predictive power of social intelligence in successful aging and since this variable can be taught and learned, by emphasizing this variable and other predictor variables, this period can be enriched for the elderly along with a better quality of life.
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Sociocultural and economic determinants of COVID-19 transmission in Pakistan: The way forward p. 174
Iftikhar Ali, Abuzar Siraj, Zair Hassan, Adnan Ashraf, Irfan Ullah, Faheemullah Khan
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