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Social reaction toward the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)
Chung-Ying Lin
January-March 2020, 3(1):1-2
  25 6,291 1,787
Comparing quality of life instruments: Sizing them up versus pediatric quality of life inventory and Kid-KINDL
Chung Ying Lin
October-December 2018, 1(2):42-47
Introduction: Children with overweight or obesity are very likely to experience health problems including low levels of psychological well-being and impaired quality of life (QoL). Given that the importance of QoL includes policymaking measuring QoL is especially crucial. Therefore, comparing generic (Kid-KINDL and Pediatric QoL Inventory [PedsQL]) and weight-related (Sizing Them Up) measures could provide insights for healthcare providers to decide how and when to use which QoL instrument. Methods: I recruited 199 school children studied between 3rd and 6th grades from 11 schools in Southern Taiwan, and all the children completed child depression inventory (for depression) and Rosenberg self-esteem scale (for self-esteem); one of their parents completed Sizing Them Up, PedsQL, and Kid-KINDL. Results: I constructed structural equation modeling to investigate the associations between these instruments, and the results indicated that self-esteem had the strongest relationship with Kid-KINDL; weight had the strongest relationship with Sizing Them Up. Moreover, both PedsQL and Kid-KINDL could observe the depression among children. Conclusion: Healthcare providers may have insights to select appropriate measure to assess QoL for overweight/obese children according to my findings.
  11 1,427 171
Ethical issues of monitoring children's weight status in school settings
Chung-Ying Lin
January-March 2019, 2(1):1-6
  4 1,581 156
Theory of planned behavior, self-stigma, and perceived barriers explains the behavior of seeking mental health services for people at risk of affective disorders
Maryam Damghanian, Mehran Alijanzadeh
October-December 2018, 1(2):54-61
Introduction: To use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) incorporated with self-stigma and perceived barriers to investigate the nature of help-seeking behaviors in a community sample at risk of anxiety or depression in Iran. Methods: Participants at risk of anxiety or depression screened by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (n = 1011) completed the following questionnaires at baseline: Factors in TPB, Self-Stigma in Seeking Help Scale, and perceived barriers in seeking help. Two years later, their help-seeking behavior (i.e., visiting a specialist) was retrieved from their medical records. Models using TPB concepts and incorporated with self-stigma and perceived barriers were tested by structural equation modeling. Results: The effects of TPB concepts, self-stigma and perceived barriers on help-seeking behaviors (i.e., visiting a specialist for mental health problems) were supported by the excellent data-model fit indices: Comparative fit index = 0.997; Tucker–Lewis index = 0.965; root mean square of error approximation (RMSEA) = 0.028; and weighted RMSEA = 0.386. All the path coefficients were significant, except for the path between perceived barriers and help-seeking behavior. Perceived behavioral control had the strongest coefficient (standardized coefficient = 0.547); subjective norm had the weakest coefficient (standardized coefficient = 0.061). In addition, perceived barriers were indirectly associated with help-seeking behaviors. Conclusion: TPB is an effective model to explain the help-seeking behaviors for people at risk of anxiety or depression. In addition, self-stigma and perceived barriers may be simultaneously considered when clinicians want to prevent an individual with depression or anxiety from not seeking proper help on their mental health problems.
  4 3,422 437
Economic burden of obesity: A systematic review
Hasan Yusefzadeh, Ali Rashidi, Bahlol Rahimi
January-March 2019, 2(1):7-12
Obesity imposes considerably high economic costs on the health-care system. It is proposed that 10% of health-care costs belong to direct and indirect effects of obesity. Taking measures to prevent, manage, and treat obesity is costly. However, some benefits can be obtained by reducing economic costs and by improving health in the future. This study aimed to systematically review the costs caused by obesity. We systematically searched the English language literature indexed in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases (January 2000 to September 2017). Articles were included if direct and indirect costs of obesity were assessed among participants at the age of more than 18 years. Key terms including economic burden, medical cost, nonmedical cost, and obesity were used for this search. From a total of 20 studies, 9 papers found to be relevant for reviewing. According to these papers, obesity accounts for 31.8% of direct costs (health-care costs related to obesity) and 68.1% of indirect costs (costs related for reducing productivity and production value). Therefore, obese people spend 32% more for medical costs compared to people with normal weight. Due to great number of short-term and long-term complications of obesity and its potential economic impact, efforts are needed to be taken to facilitate health interventions and social policies. Nationally, as obesity imposes high costs on people and health-care system which should fund most of these costs, developing plans to decrease these costs are needed.
  4 2,270 311
Child–Parent agreement on quality of life of overweight children: Discrepancies between raters
Xavier CC Fung
October-December 2018, 1(2):37-41
Introduction: Kid-KINDL, a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument for children, contains paralleled child-reported and parent–proxy versions. However, parents may rate HRQoL differently from children do; thus, health-care providers may be misled by the parent-rated HRQoL to assess the health of children. Thus, understanding the agreement between parent- and child-rated HRQoL is important. This study aimed to investigate the agreement between child- and parent-rated Kid-KINDL, including total score and domain (physical, emotional, self-esteem, friend, family, and school) scores. Methods: A total of 96 dyads of 8 to 12-year-old overweight children were recruited. Child-reported and parent–proxy Kid-KINDL were completed by children and parents (70.8% mother; 19.8% father), respectively. Statistical significance of child–parent discrepancies was analyzed using paired t-test and magnitude of discrepancies was analyzed using Cohen's d. Regression analyses were used to examine the potential predictors (age, gender, body mass index, family income, and raters) on score differences. Results: Significant differences were found in total score (d = −0.26) and three subscales (emotional, d = 0.21; self-esteem, d = −0.33; and school, d = −0.56) with small-to-medium magnitudes. Regression analyses revealed that father as rater significantly explained the score differences in total (standard coefficient β = −0.266, P = 0.013), emotional (β = −0.224,P = 0.038), and school (β = −0.215, P = 0.045). Conclusion: Parents seemed to be optimistic when rating on their overweight children's HRQoL. Health-care providers should be aware of this issue when using parent-reported Kid-KINDL and do not miss out any risk on children's HRQoL. Furthermore, the results may suggest health-care providers improving child–parent interaction. They can not only align parent with child, but also align with every caregiver.
  3 1,450 203
Relationships among health-related behaviors, smartphone dependence, and sleep duration in female junior college students
Shang-Yu Yang, Kai-Li Chen, Pin-Hsuan Lin, Po-Yu Wang
January-March 2019, 2(1):26-31
Introduction: Inadequate sleep is common among adolescents. Females have been found to have higher sleep requirement than that in males. This study aimed at (1) investigating the associations of sleep duration with smartphone dependence and a health-promoting lifestyle, and (2) identifying predictor(s) of inadequate sleep among adolescent females. Methods: This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study recruited 385 female junior college students (mean age: 17.50 ± 3.30 years) at a single tertiary education institute in December 2014. The questionnaire comprised three parts: (1) demographic/anthropometric characteristics (i.e., age, body mass index) and habits of alcohol/tobacco consumption, (2) smartphone dependence score according to the participant's response to four questions rated with five-point Likert scale, and (3) scores on compliance with six dimensions of the health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP), including nutrition, health responsibility, self-actualization, interpersonal support, exercise, stress management, and total score. Correlations of the study parameters and sleep adequacy (defined as ≥7 h) were investigated. Results: The mean sleep duration of the participants was 7.35 ± 1.49 h. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated significant negative correlation between smartphone dependence and sleep duration (P < 0.01), as well as positive associations of sleep duration with the nutrition (P < 0.01), health responsibility (P < 0.05), stress management (P < 0.01) dimensions, and total score (P = 0.01) of HPLP. Stepwise regression further showed that smartphone dependence was the only significant predictor of inadequate sleep (B: −0.06; standard error: 0.02; P < 0.01). Conclusion: The results of the present study underscore the importance of promoting a healthy lifestyle including prevention of smartphone dependence in maintaining healthy sleep habits in adolescent females.
  3 2,293 209
Weight stigma, coping strategies, and mental health among children with overweight
Chung-Ying Lin
October-December 2019, 2(4):133-138
Introduction: Obesity/overweight (hereafter, overweight indicates both obesity and overweight) is an important health issue that is gaining growing interest worldwide. One health issue for children with overweight is stigma. The aims of this study were (1) to detect the impact of stigma on mental health and (2) to probe the effects of positive and negative coping on the mental health of children with overweight. Methods: The author conducted a secondary data analysis using two waves of data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS): the first wave in 2001 and the second wave in 2003. A group of junior high school students (in the 7th grade in the first wave; n = 2612; nmale = 1171) was used for data analysis. Items in the TEPS were categorized into the following five variables: mental health (nine items), stigma from peers (three items in relationship with peers and four items in bullying experience), stigma from parents (four items), positive coping strategies (six items in increasing social activities and two items in increasing self-study activities), and negative coping strategies (five items). Results: The overweight group experienced more peer stigma than the normal-weight group. Bullying experience, stigma from parents, and self-study activities were significantly correlated to mental health in both groups. The overweight group demonstrated stronger negative relationships between bullying events, negative strategies, and mental health than the normal-weight group; a weaker negative relationship was shown between stigma from parents and mental health. Conclusion: Stigma and negative strategies could endanger mental health among children with overweight.
  2 849 122
The mental health needs of child and adolescent refugees and asylum seekers entering Europe
Supakyada Sapthiang, William Van Gordon, Edo Shonin, Mark D Griffiths
January-March 2019, 2(1):13-16
Children and adolescents constitute more than half of the global refugee population, and almost one-third of first-time asylum seekers in the European Union (EU) during 2015 were under 18 years of age. Syria, in particular, accounts for a substantial proportion of young refugees and asylum seekers because the ongoing civil war has led to almost 5 million Syrians fleeing their country and becoming refugees during the past 7 years. Being a child or adolescent refugee or asylum seeker carries an increased risk of developing mental illness, and such displaced young people are known to experience problems in accessing health-care support. The present article draws on examples from Syria in order to (i) Highlight mental health issues that typically arise in children and adolescent refugees and asylum seekers entering Europe and (ii) discuss how changes to health systems and policies in European countries receiving refugees and asylum seekers can be better aligned with global efforts to improve the mental health of young displaced immigrants. In general, research findings indicate that there is a need for better awareness, intra-agency collaboration, and cultural sensitivity toward the mental health needs of this immigrant population. Furthermore, there is also a need for EU countries to better respond to posttraumatic stress disorder and other typical refugee and asylum seeker mental health problems by more closely aligning national policies with global initiatives to improve the mental health of young displaced immigrants.
  2 1,785 223
Nature walk decrease the depression by instigating positive mood
Atul Kumar Goyal, Arun Bansal, Jyoti Saini
October-December 2018, 1(2):62-66
Introduction: Depression the most common psychological problem prevails across the world. To deal with depression, psychotropic drugs are generally prescribed by the clinicians which have enormous side-effects. Nature walk refers to a walk in the natural area containing wild flora and fauna, undisturbed by the anthropogenic means. The nature walk is considered as a live meditation which imparts mental peace in the walkers. But limited evidence is availed till date reporting the role of a nature walk in instigating positive mood. Therefore, present work was carried out to evaluate the potential role of a nature walk in decreasing depression by instigating the positive mood. Methods: For this, a nature walk was organized for 20 participants in Chhatbir Zoo, Chandigarh. The mood of participants was assessed by using the BMIS instrument. Results: Results of the present study revealed that nature walks significantly instigate the positive mood. Conclusion: Based on our results, we suggest that nature walk can be used as an intervention to manage depression.
  1 1,403 169
Lifestyle and Preventive Behaviors of Osteoporosis among Women of Reproductive Age in Qazvin-Iran: A Cross Sectional Study
Leili Yekefallah, Leila Dehghankar, Mohaddeseh Aliakbari, Maryam Mafi
April-June 2019, 2(2):70-75
Introduction: Osteoporosis is a silent illness with many negative consequences that can decrease women's quality of life and daily life activities and even cause death. The aim of this study was to examine the lifestyle and preventive behaviors related to osteoporosis among women of reproductive age in Qazvin city, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 women (mean age = 30.75 ± 7.47 years) were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. A researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 15 questions on the patterns of nutrition, physical activity, and specific preventive behaviors related to osteoporosis and demographic factors was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using Chi-square with Fisher's exact test and logistic regression model. Results: The study results showed that most women (73.3%) had a positive family history of osteoporosis and 65.3% of them consumed carbonated beverages at least twice a week. Furthermore, 46.7% of them used coffee twice a week. There was a statistically significant relationship between their age (P < 0.0001) and positive family history of osteoporosis (P = 0.05) with knowledge about osteoporosis. According to the logistic regression model, a statistically significant relationship was found between age and awareness of osteoporosis (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Women should be encouraged to change their lifestyle in order to prevent osteoporosis. Educational programs should be held, and educational posters should be installed in gathering areas in the city and health centers with regard to risk factors and preventive behaviors of osteoporosis among women of reproductive age.
  1 886 124
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