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Social reaction toward the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)
Chung-Ying Lin
January-March 2020, 3(1):1-2
  345 62,638 6,374
To wear or not to wear? Factors influencing wearing face masks in Germany during the COVID-19 pandemic
Marc Oliver Rieger
April-June 2020, 3(2):50-54
Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been advised to wear masks. Attitudes toward wearing masks have not been investigated well. We want to provide data on whether and why people would be willing to wear masks in order to suggest ways for enhancing compliance. Methods: We conducted a survey among 206 participants on April 20 to 22, 2020. The sample mean age was 28 years, 63% of the participants were female, 64% were undergraduate or graduate students, and 51% had a university degree. Data from a previous study (n = 241, mean age of 26 years, 66% females, 83% students, 52% with a university degree) have also been used. Results: Fifty to eighty percent of the participants stated they would (probably) wear a mask (if they had one) in most scenarios. On the street, only 21% said they would. Demographic factors did not prove to be significant, whereas a university degree increased the likelihood of wearing a mask. Determining factors included worries about the current situation, self-protection, protecting others, thinking that wearing a mask looks strange, and being afraid of others' judgment when wearing a mask. The significance of these factors varies strongly between the age groups. Nearly all participants stated they would wear a mask if it were legally required, but compliance would be lower if the law required them to wear masks on the street. Surprisingly, there is no difference in attitudes toward masks as compared to the results of the previous survey from March 24 to 25, 2020. Conclusion: Legally requiring people to wear face masks seems to be an essentially effective instrument in this case. Studying the voluntary use of masks, we find that in different groups, wearing (or not wearing) a mask can be attributed to various reasons. Potential campaigns should therefore be tailor-made for different demographic groups.
  54 33,276 2,778
Triggering altruism increases the willingness to get vaccinated against COVID-19
Marc Oliver Rieger
July-September 2020, 3(3):78-82
Introduction: Once a vaccine against COVID-19 is available, the question of how to convince as many people as possible to get vaccinated will arise. We test three different strategies to reach this goal: two selfish motivations (highlighting personal survival risk or the inconveniences in the event of getting infected) and altruism (reducing the danger for individuals who cannot be vaccinated or remain vulnerable even after getting vaccinated). Methods: We conduct an online experiment with N = 303 subjects (64% female, 79% university students, average age 26 years) with the three aforementioned treatments and compare the treatment effects on vaccination willingness with the baseline. Results: Results suggest a positive effect of all treatments, but the treatment where reducing the danger for individuals who cannot be vaccinated was highlighted was by far the most effective. Conclusion: This result implies that this rarely discussed aspect should be given more attention to increase the willingness to get vaccinated against COVID-19.
  44 21,547 1,961
Policy actions to alleviate psychosocial impacts of COVID-19 pandemic: Experiences from Taiwan
Ming-Wei Lin, Yawen Cheng
April-June 2020, 3(2):72-73
  30 13,176 1,029
“Infodemic” in a pandemic: COVID-19 conspiracy theories in an african country
Olusoji S Olatunji, Olusola Ayandele, Doyin Ashirudeen, Oluwatosin S Olaniru
October-December 2020, 3(4):152-157
Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), being the first pandemic to occur in the digital communications era, is rife with “infodemic” of misinformation and conspiracy theories. This article explored popular conspiracy theories about COVID-19 in Nigeria and highlighted the sources of COVID-19 information among Nigerians and perceived trustworthiness of the information sources. It also identified various inaccurate information and conspiracy claims reported by traditional media in Nigeria. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among a sample of 736 undergraduate students of a public tertiary institution in Nigeria. A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants through social media platforms. Google Forms was used to host an anonymous questionnaire and the link sent to the Facebook and WhatsApp groups of students' associations. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. The data collection was initiated on May 27 and closed on June 5, 2020. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted on participants' responses. Results: COVID-19 infection in Nigeria is seen as “an exaggeration by the government and media,” and as a “Chinese biological weapon.” Traditional media is the most popular source of information about COVID-19. Nigeria Centre of Diseases Control is the most trusted source of COVID-19 information, while information from political leaders and social media was perceived as untrustworthy. Conclusion: COVID-19 conspiracy theories were driven majorly on social media, by a dearth of trust in political leadership and “breaking” of inaccurate coronavirus news by traditional media. Stakeholders need to collaborate to debunk conspiracy theories.
  27 26,500 1,915
COVID-19 infection risk in pakistani health-care workers: The cost-effective safety measures for developing countries
Norina Usman, Mohammed A Mamun, Irfan Ullah
July-September 2020, 3(3):75-77
To combat the massive COVID-19 infection rates, the health-care workers (HCWs) are likely to work for long hours under substantial pressures, along with the infection risk. The consequence is that the HCWs become progressively hesitant to their works and psychologically impaired. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the health-care facilities are limited; hence, the HCWs safety measures are a great concern. Thus, these country needs a cost-effective strategy focusing on sympathetic discussions, that can be beneficial to reduce the psychological sufferings by ensuring the protection of the HCWs to facilitate proper services in combating with the COVID-19 crisis– which is provided in this commentary.
  25 15,215 1,040
Mental health problems and impact on youth minds during the COVID-19 outbreak: Cross-sectional (RED-COVID) survey
Deepak Nathiya, Pratima Singh, Supriya Suman, Preeti Raj, Balvir Singh Tomar
July-September 2020, 3(3):83-88
Introduction: The COVID-19 outbreak had impacted humankind with herculean force. Extensive Indian population which comprises youths are going through psychological resilience due to isolation, contact transmission, and economic crisis. Methods: A cross-sectional study among youth Indian citizens aged 15–30 years through social media platforms was conducted. The survey instrument consisted of demographic characteristics, assessment psychological impact by Depression, Anxiety and Stress-21 scale, and four items on COVID-19 stressors. Results: Out of 684 responses from red containment zones, 474 participants completed the study. Overall, moderate-to-severe stress, anxiety, and depression were 37.36%, 30.89%, and 24.63% in youths, respectively. Mental health outcomes were associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.70–4.46), marital status (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.47–3.88), residence in rural area (OR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.74–4.78), and postgraduate qualification (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 0.74–3.36). Economical stressors, physical illness, and changes in daily life were found to be positive predictors of mental health problems. Conclusion: Our finding suggested requirement psychological intervention targeting youth living in rural areas especially women through government schemes irrespective of educational status.
  22 32,646 2,596
Economic burden of obesity: A systematic review
Hasan Yusefzadeh, Ali Rashidi, Bahlol Rahimi
January-March 2019, 2(1):7-12
Obesity imposes considerably high economic costs on the health-care system. It is proposed that 10% of health-care costs belong to direct and indirect effects of obesity. Taking measures to prevent, manage, and treat obesity is costly. However, some benefits can be obtained by reducing economic costs and by improving health in the future. This study aimed to systematically review the costs caused by obesity. We systematically searched the English language literature indexed in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases (January 2000 to September 2017). Articles were included if direct and indirect costs of obesity were assessed among participants at the age of more than 18 years. Key terms including economic burden, medical cost, nonmedical cost, and obesity were used for this search. From a total of 20 studies, 9 papers found to be relevant for reviewing. According to these papers, obesity accounts for 31.8% of direct costs (health-care costs related to obesity) and 68.1% of indirect costs (costs related for reducing productivity and production value). Therefore, obese people spend 32% more for medical costs compared to people with normal weight. Due to great number of short-term and long-term complications of obesity and its potential economic impact, efforts are needed to be taken to facilitate health interventions and social policies. Nationally, as obesity imposes high costs on people and health-care system which should fund most of these costs, developing plans to decrease these costs are needed.
  20 17,495 2,081
Comparing quality of life instruments: Sizing them up versus pediatric quality of life inventory and Kid-KINDL
Chung Ying Lin
October-December 2018, 1(2):42-47
Introduction: Children with overweight or obesity are very likely to experience health problems including low levels of psychological well-being and impaired quality of life (QoL). Given that the importance of QoL includes policymaking measuring QoL is especially crucial. Therefore, comparing generic (Kid-KINDL and Pediatric QoL Inventory [PedsQL]) and weight-related (Sizing Them Up) measures could provide insights for healthcare providers to decide how and when to use which QoL instrument. Methods: I recruited 199 school children studied between 3rd and 6th grades from 11 schools in Southern Taiwan, and all the children completed child depression inventory (for depression) and Rosenberg self-esteem scale (for self-esteem); one of their parents completed Sizing Them Up, PedsQL, and Kid-KINDL. Results: I constructed structural equation modeling to investigate the associations between these instruments, and the results indicated that self-esteem had the strongest relationship with Kid-KINDL; weight had the strongest relationship with Sizing Them Up. Moreover, both PedsQL and Kid-KINDL could observe the depression among children. Conclusion: Healthcare providers may have insights to select appropriate measure to assess QoL for overweight/obese children according to my findings.
  19 8,210 826
Relationships among health-related behaviors, smartphone dependence, and sleep duration in female junior college students
Shang-Yu Yang, Kai-Li Chen, Pin-Hsuan Lin, Po-Yu Wang
January-March 2019, 2(1):26-31
Introduction: Inadequate sleep is common among adolescents. Females have been found to have higher sleep requirement than that in males. This study aimed at (1) investigating the associations of sleep duration with smartphone dependence and a health-promoting lifestyle, and (2) identifying predictor(s) of inadequate sleep among adolescent females. Methods: This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study recruited 385 female junior college students (mean age: 17.50 ± 3.30 years) at a single tertiary education institute in December 2014. The questionnaire comprised three parts: (1) demographic/anthropometric characteristics (i.e., age, body mass index) and habits of alcohol/tobacco consumption, (2) smartphone dependence score according to the participant's response to four questions rated with five-point Likert scale, and (3) scores on compliance with six dimensions of the health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP), including nutrition, health responsibility, self-actualization, interpersonal support, exercise, stress management, and total score. Correlations of the study parameters and sleep adequacy (defined as ≥7 h) were investigated. Results: The mean sleep duration of the participants was 7.35 ± 1.49 h. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated significant negative correlation between smartphone dependence and sleep duration (P < 0.01), as well as positive associations of sleep duration with the nutrition (P < 0.01), health responsibility (P < 0.05), stress management (P < 0.01) dimensions, and total score (P = 0.01) of HPLP. Stepwise regression further showed that smartphone dependence was the only significant predictor of inadequate sleep (B: −0.06; standard error: 0.02; P < 0.01). Conclusion: The results of the present study underscore the importance of promoting a healthy lifestyle including prevention of smartphone dependence in maintaining healthy sleep habits in adolescent females.
  17 15,190 1,131
COVID-19 pandemic: Responding to the challenge of global shortage of personal protective equipment
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
April-June 2020, 3(2):70-71
The Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues its upward growth in terms of the rising caseload, attributed deaths as well as the geographical distribution. Owing to the sudden rise in the number of cases, the demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) has become very high and thus it resulted in their significant shortage. Hence, it is important to respond to the global shortage of PPE and this can be done by minimizing the need, promoting the rational use, and coordinating the supply chain mechanism. At the same time, steps should be taken to ensure more production of the PPE on an emergency basis. In conclusion, it is important to collectively respond to the shortage of PPE and ensure that they are available in adequate amount for the rational usage. However, the mere usage of PPE will not avert the possibility of acquisition of infection, unless it is supplemented with other standard infection prevention and control measures.
  15 7,639 780
Theory of planned behavior, self-stigma, and perceived barriers explains the behavior of seeking mental health services for people at risk of affective disorders
Maryam Damghanian, Mehran Alijanzadeh
October-December 2018, 1(2):54-61
Introduction: To use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) incorporated with self-stigma and perceived barriers to investigate the nature of help-seeking behaviors in a community sample at risk of anxiety or depression in Iran. Methods: Participants at risk of anxiety or depression screened by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (n = 1011) completed the following questionnaires at baseline: Factors in TPB, Self-Stigma in Seeking Help Scale, and perceived barriers in seeking help. Two years later, their help-seeking behavior (i.e., visiting a specialist) was retrieved from their medical records. Models using TPB concepts and incorporated with self-stigma and perceived barriers were tested by structural equation modeling. Results: The effects of TPB concepts, self-stigma and perceived barriers on help-seeking behaviors (i.e., visiting a specialist for mental health problems) were supported by the excellent data-model fit indices: Comparative fit index = 0.997; Tucker–Lewis index = 0.965; root mean square of error approximation (RMSEA) = 0.028; and weighted RMSEA = 0.386. All the path coefficients were significant, except for the path between perceived barriers and help-seeking behavior. Perceived behavioral control had the strongest coefficient (standardized coefficient = 0.547); subjective norm had the weakest coefficient (standardized coefficient = 0.061). In addition, perceived barriers were indirectly associated with help-seeking behaviors. Conclusion: TPB is an effective model to explain the help-seeking behaviors for people at risk of anxiety or depression. In addition, self-stigma and perceived barriers may be simultaneously considered when clinicians want to prevent an individual with depression or anxiety from not seeking proper help on their mental health problems.
  13 20,127 2,044
Weight stigma, coping strategies, and mental health among children with overweight
Chung-Ying Lin
October-December 2019, 2(4):133-138
Introduction: Obesity/overweight (hereafter, overweight indicates both obesity and overweight) is an important health issue that is gaining growing interest worldwide. One health issue for children with overweight is stigma. The aims of this study were (1) to detect the impact of stigma on mental health and (2) to probe the effects of positive and negative coping on the mental health of children with overweight. Methods: The author conducted a secondary data analysis using two waves of data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS): the first wave in 2001 and the second wave in 2003. A group of junior high school students (in the 7th grade in the first wave; n = 2612; nmale = 1171) was used for data analysis. Items in the TEPS were categorized into the following five variables: mental health (nine items), stigma from peers (three items in relationship with peers and four items in bullying experience), stigma from parents (four items), positive coping strategies (six items in increasing social activities and two items in increasing self-study activities), and negative coping strategies (five items). Results: The overweight group experienced more peer stigma than the normal-weight group. Bullying experience, stigma from parents, and self-study activities were significantly correlated to mental health in both groups. The overweight group demonstrated stronger negative relationships between bullying events, negative strategies, and mental health than the normal-weight group; a weaker negative relationship was shown between stigma from parents and mental health. Conclusion: Stigma and negative strategies could endanger mental health among children with overweight.
  7 9,602 765
The effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on general self-efficacy, self-control, and internet addiction prevalence among medical university students
Isa Mohammadi Zeidi, Shahla Divsalar, Hadi Morshedi, Hamid Alizadeh
July-September 2020, 3(3):93-102
Introduction: Various studies have highlighted the high prevalence of psychological and psychiatric problems among students with Internet addiction (IA). This study aimed to determine the effect of GCBT on self-control, self-efficacy as well as the prevalence of IA amongst students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences (QUMS). Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 80 students addicted to the Internet. Participants were randomly divided into control (without intervention) and treatment group (GCBT). The experimental group participated in a GCBT program consisted of 10 two2-hour sessions based on psychosocial training, cognitive reconstruction, behavior modification, and improving emotion regulation. Data were collected using demographic information, Yang IA test, brief self-control scale, and compulsive iInternet usage scale before and 3 months after GCBT. Results: The Rfindings demonstrated significant improvements in general self-efficacy (21.90 ± 5.1-–27.31 ± 3.9, F = 46.131, df = 1, P < 0.001) and self-control (33.03 ± 4.7-–44.78 ± 6.1, F = 59.252, df = 1, P < 0.001), while compulsive Internet usage (41.41 ± 6.35-–25.13 ± 3.97, F = 163.359, df = 1, P < 0.001) and IA (60.83 ± 9.95-–36.10 ± 5.16, F = 183.302, df = 1, P < 0.001) were remarkably reduced in the experimental group after GCBT. Conclusion: This study suggests that GCBT can be an effective treatment for those college students struggling with IA, with improving the psychological variables affecting IA.
  7 10,648 1,145
The Herth Hope Index: A validation study within a sample of iranian patients with heart disease
Mohammad Ali Soleimani, Kelly A Allen, Kaye A Herth, Saeed Pahlevan Sharif
July-September 2019, 2(3):108-113
Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Persian version of the Herth Hope Index (HHI-Persian version) within a sample of Iranian patients with heart disease (HD). Methods: The present research used a clinical sample of HD patients hospitalized in a medical institution in Qazvin, Iran. A total of 500 patients were selected via convenience sampling method and were divided into two subsamples to test for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) (n = 250) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (n = 250) separately. Construct validity of the HHI-Persian version was evaluated using EFA and CFA. The reliability of the HHI-Persian version was first assessed using internal consistency (i.e., Cronbach's alpha) and construct reliability. Results: Exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation revealed that the index had a one factor consisting of 11 items (eigenvalue = 4.784) which explained 38.309% of the total variance. The results showed that the single factor consisting of 11 items has a good fit (χ2 [42, n = 250] = 107.242,P < 0.001; χ2/df = 2.553, adjusted goodness-of-fit index [GFI] = 0.889, GFI = 0.929, comparative fit index = 0.938, normed fit index = 0.903, Tucker–Lewis Index = 0.918, incremental fit index = 0.918, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.079 [90% confidence interval = 0.079 (0.061–0.098)]). Cronbach's alpha and construct reliability were 0.856 and 0.878, respectively, which indicates the good reliability of the HHI. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that the HHI-Persian version is a valid and reliable instrument that has potential utility in future research.
  6 10,713 770
Association between self-rated health and quality of life with sleep quality among bangladeshi university students
Md Sabbir Ahmed, Liton Chandra Sen, Mark D Griffiths
April-June 2020, 3(2):35-37
Introduction: Poor sleep quality is adversely affecting student's mental health. However, the impact of poor sleep quality on student's health and quality of life (QOL) has not been previously studied in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to assess the association between self-rated health (SRH) and QOL of university students with their sleep quality. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey was carried out among 332 students of Patuakhali Science and Technology University (Bangladesh) aged from 18 to 25 years (mean = 21.6 years; standard deviation ± 1.7). Data were collected through one-to-one interviews using a pretested structured questionnaire. Results: There was a significant association between SRH and QOL with sleep quality. Students experiencing poor sleep quality had a 2.4 times higher risk for poor SRH (odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–4.95, P = 0.012) The OR of poor QOL was 3.3 times higher among the students whose sleep quality was poor (OR = 3.38, 95% CI: 1.70–6.75, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Study findings indicated that poor sleep quality adversely affects the health status and QOL of Bangladeshi university students. University authorities in Bangladesh should develop programs to improve the overall health and sleep quality of the students.
  6 5,416 611
The prevalence and predictive factors of internet addiction and its relationship with emotional intelligence among medical students
Leili Yekefallah, Leila Dehghankar, Ali Razaghpoor, Elham Hasannia, Narges Hosseini, Maryam Mafi
October-December 2019, 2(4):145-150
Introduction: Abundant applications of the Internet in recent years have resulted in emerging of a phenomenon known as “Internet addiction.” The present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) and its relationship with emotional intelligence (EI) among students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 325 medical students who were studying at five faculties of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences (School of Medical, School of Paramedical Sciences, School of Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, and School of Dentistry). In order to collect data, three instruments were used including (1) a checklist for demographic characteristics, (2) IA test, and (3) Schutte EI Scale. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, and standard deviation), Pearson correlation, and multivariate linear regression were performed to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of moderate and severe levels of IA was reported to be 12% and 0.3%, respectively. Moreover, 31.4% of the students were normal users and 56.3% had a mild addiction to the Internet. The results also showed an inverse and significant relationship between IA and EI (r = −0.163, P = 0.003). Regression model showed that Internet usage time (β = 0.34, P < 0.001), total EI (β = −0.2, P = 0.002), and using social media (β = 0.18, P = 0.007) significantly predicted the prevalence of IA at all levels of the severity of IA. Conclusion: The results of this study showed an inverse and significant relationship between IA and EI among medical students. Therefore, we can take an effective step to increase students' emotion and improve their coping skills by holding special workshops and classes so as to prevent them from IA.
  5 7,744 701
Can social support predict health-promoting behaviors among community-dwelling older adults?
Leila Khami, Seyedeh Ameneh Motalebi, Fatemeh Mohammadi, Maryam Momeni, Akram Shahrokhi
January-March 2020, 3(1):22-26
Introduction: Because health-promoting behavior is one of the major determinants of health, this study was conducted to determine whether social support predicts health-promoting behaviors in elderly people living in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, 180 elderly people referring to the health complexes in Tabriz, Iran, were selected using a random cluster sampling method. Data were collected using demographic questionnaires, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale. Data were analyzed using stepwise multiple linear regression models. Results: The mean age of 180 elderly people who participated in the study was 66.9 ± 5.74 years. The results of multiple regression indicated that education (B = 8.98, P < 0.001) and perceived social support (B = 0.45, P < 0.014) explained ~29% of changes in health-promoting behaviors among the elderly. Conclusion: Given the predictive role of perceived social support in health-promoting behaviors, establishing or strengthening supportive social networks seems to be one of the effective factors in promoting the elderly's health.
  5 7,219 681
Nature walk decrease the depression by instigating positive mood
Atul Kumar Goyal, Arun Bansal, Jyoti Saini
October-December 2018, 1(2):62-66
Introduction: Depression the most common psychological problem prevails across the world. To deal with depression, psychotropic drugs are generally prescribed by the clinicians which have enormous side-effects. Nature walk refers to a walk in the natural area containing wild flora and fauna, undisturbed by the anthropogenic means. The nature walk is considered as a live meditation which imparts mental peace in the walkers. But limited evidence is availed till date reporting the role of a nature walk in instigating positive mood. Therefore, present work was carried out to evaluate the potential role of a nature walk in decreasing depression by instigating the positive mood. Methods: For this, a nature walk was organized for 20 participants in Chhatbir Zoo, Chandigarh. The mood of participants was assessed by using the BMIS instrument. Results: Results of the present study revealed that nature walks significantly instigate the positive mood. Conclusion: Based on our results, we suggest that nature walk can be used as an intervention to manage depression.
  5 9,685 807
Child–Parent agreement on quality of life of overweight children: Discrepancies between raters
Xavier CC Fung
October-December 2018, 1(2):37-41
Introduction: Kid-KINDL, a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument for children, contains paralleled child-reported and parent–proxy versions. However, parents may rate HRQoL differently from children do; thus, health-care providers may be misled by the parent-rated HRQoL to assess the health of children. Thus, understanding the agreement between parent- and child-rated HRQoL is important. This study aimed to investigate the agreement between child- and parent-rated Kid-KINDL, including total score and domain (physical, emotional, self-esteem, friend, family, and school) scores. Methods: A total of 96 dyads of 8 to 12-year-old overweight children were recruited. Child-reported and parent–proxy Kid-KINDL were completed by children and parents (70.8% mother; 19.8% father), respectively. Statistical significance of child–parent discrepancies was analyzed using paired t-test and magnitude of discrepancies was analyzed using Cohen's d. Regression analyses were used to examine the potential predictors (age, gender, body mass index, family income, and raters) on score differences. Results: Significant differences were found in total score (d = −0.26) and three subscales (emotional, d = 0.21; self-esteem, d = −0.33; and school, d = −0.56) with small-to-medium magnitudes. Regression analyses revealed that father as rater significantly explained the score differences in total (standard coefficient β = −0.266, P = 0.013), emotional (β = −0.224,P = 0.038), and school (β = −0.215, P = 0.045). Conclusion: Parents seemed to be optimistic when rating on their overweight children's HRQoL. Health-care providers should be aware of this issue when using parent-reported Kid-KINDL and do not miss out any risk on children's HRQoL. Furthermore, the results may suggest health-care providers improving child–parent interaction. They can not only align parent with child, but also align with every caregiver.
  5 7,125 698
Poor Activities of Daily Living Function Reflect Poor Quality of Life after Hip Fracture Surgery for Geriatric Patients
Wei-Ting Chang, Yi-Jie Kuo, Yu-Yun Huang, Ming-Jr Tsai, Yu-Pin Chen
April-June 2019, 2(2):41-46
Introduction: With the aging of the population, hip fractures have become a major public health issue in the elderly. It is important to examine the loss of activities of daily living (ADL) and the quality of life (QoL) among the elderly after repair of hip fracture. The correlation between ADL and QoL over time after hip fracture surgery was also our major concern. Methods: A prospective study enrolling 117 geriatric patients undergoing hip fracture surgery in a tertiary medical center was conducted between 2017 and 2018. All participants were evaluated with the EuroQol-5D for assessing QoL and the Barthel index for measuring ADL function at baseline, 3-and 6-month follow-ups after hip fracture surgery. Results: The mortality rate among geriatric patients after hip fracture surgery was 5.5% at 3 months and 9.1% at 6 months. In addition, both ADL function and QoL significantly deteriorated after 6 months of follow-up without improvement with time. After the 6-month follow-up, only 20% of geriatric patients undergoing repair for hip fracture were able to recover baseline ADL. The QoL at the 6-month follow-up was correlated with both cross-sectional and longitudinal ADL function after repair for hip fracture among geriatric patients. Conclusion: Functional impairment is common among geriatric patients after hip fracture surgery. Poor ADL could predict and reflect poor QoL after the 6-month follow-up. More emphasis should be put on preventing functional loss after hip fracture surgery in order for better QoL among geriatric patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.
  5 9,382 718
Socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with low birth weight in Nepal: Data from 2016 Nepal demographic and health survey
Benojir Ahammed, Md Maniruzzaman, Farzana Ferdausi, Md Menhazul Abedin, Md Tanvir Hossain
October-December 2020, 3(4):158-165
Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) is an essential component for child mortality, and it also has dangerous effects on the mother's health. This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of the LBW among Nepalese children as well as to identify its socioeconomic and demographic determinants. Methods: For this study, 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data was used; 2,618 women having child were considered as respondents under precise specifications. The LBW of children was defined as birth weight <2500g. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression model were used to determine the risk factors of LBW based on the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) along with 95% confidence interval (CI) and P value (P < 0.05). Results: The overall prevalence of LBW in Nepal was 12.9% (95% CI: 11.6%–14.6%). The results of the multivariate analysis show that twin children (AOR: 22.538; 95% CI: 8.706–58.343) and female children (AOR: 1.444; 95% CI: 1.132–1.841) had a higher risk of LBW. Maternal age was also an important factor affecting LBW as findings suggest that the LBW tend to decrease with an increase of mother's age. Findings also indicate that children of the educated father with higher wealth status, maternal intake of iron tablets/syrup during pregnancy, and families having more than one child were safeguarding against LBW in Nepal. Conclusion: Risk factors of LBW are still problematic and unresolved in Nepal. Therefore, the implementation of social as well as health awareness programs, including maternal, neonatal and child health, are expected to introduce to curb LBW.
  5 8,516 766
Roping-In religious leaders and faith experts in the effective containment of the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
July-September 2020, 3(3):130-131
  4 4,424 473
Ethical issues of monitoring children's weight status in school settings
Chung-Ying Lin
January-March 2019, 2(1):1-6
  4 10,173 772
Sexual dysfunction and its related factors among pregnant women referred to health centers in Qazvin, Iran
Hamideh Hajnasiri, Farnoosh Moafi, Masomeh Nami, Atefeh Safaralinezhad
January-March 2020, 3(1):27-34
Introduction: Sexual function is a part of human life and behavior. It is considered a multidimensional phenomenon that it is influenced by various biological, psychological, and social factors. Pregnancy plays an important role in female sexual function and behavior. This study was conducted to investigate the sexual function and to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among pregnant women during the trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study conducted in 2016 on 150 pregnant women who referred to the health centers affiliated to Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, in Qazvin. Samples were recruited through convenience sampling. For data collection, a personal and midwifery characteristics checklist, the Female Sexual Function Index, and Depression Anxiety, Stress scales were used. Collected data were then analyzed using SPSS using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and univariate and multivariate regression models. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all tests. Results: Thirty-three percent of pregnant women suffered from sexual dysfunction. The mean and standard deviation of the female sexual function score were 44.7 ± 26.11. Sexual dysfunction among pregnant women during the first, second, and third trimesters were 2%, 20%, and 78%, respectively. Sexual function was correlated with gestational age (P < 0.05); however, the mean sexual function score was lower during the third trimester. There was also a significant relationship between sexual function with the mother's age and education. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction during pregnancy was high. Therefore, pregnant women and their spouses need counseling on the physical and mental changes during pregnancy.
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