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   2019| July-September  | Volume 2 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 9, 2019

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Self-care behavior and self-care agency in lowering salt consumption in hypertensive older patients based on orem's self-care theory
Mina Hosseinzadeh, Nader Mahdavi, Sousan Valizadeh, Marjaneh M Fooladi, Farnaz Rahmani, Farnaz Ghanouni, Parvaneh Aghajari
July-September 2019, 2(3):89-95
Introduction: Hypertension is a common chronic disease with multiple systemic complications. Reducing dietary salt intake is one of the most effective and economical methods for managing hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate self-care agency and self-care behaviors of patients with hypertension in reducing dietary salt and its related factors in Tabriz. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 250 hypertensive adults were selected in June 2016–2017 from a pool of referred patients to the general clinic at one large teaching hospitals in Iran. They were selected through purposive sampling method. The data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire, self-care agency scale, and self-care behaviors scale. Statistical analysis included simple and multiple (multivariable) linear regression. Results: For dietary sodium reduction, the mean scores (standard deviation) of self-care agency and self-care behaviors were 37.4 ± 10.04 and 36.5 ± 7.8, respectively. Variables with a significant correlation with self-care agency were marital status, age, and the years of hypertension diagnosis (P < 0.001), and for self-care behaviors were marital status and self-care agency (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that single and older patients with a recent diagnosis of hypertension had a low score in self-care agency and self-care behavior. Therefore, health-care providers can focus their educational activities on these individuals to enhance their self-care behaviors and agency.
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The Herth Hope Index: A validation study within a sample of iranian patients with heart disease
Mohammad Ali Soleimani, Kelly A Allen, Kaye A Herth, Saeed Pahlevan Sharif
July-September 2019, 2(3):108-113
Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Persian version of the Herth Hope Index (HHI-Persian version) within a sample of Iranian patients with heart disease (HD). Methods: The present research used a clinical sample of HD patients hospitalized in a medical institution in Qazvin, Iran. A total of 500 patients were selected via convenience sampling method and were divided into two subsamples to test for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) (n = 250) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (n = 250) separately. Construct validity of the HHI-Persian version was evaluated using EFA and CFA. The reliability of the HHI-Persian version was first assessed using internal consistency (i.e., Cronbach's alpha) and construct reliability. Results: Exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation revealed that the index had a one factor consisting of 11 items (eigenvalue = 4.784) which explained 38.309% of the total variance. The results showed that the single factor consisting of 11 items has a good fit (χ2 [42, n = 250] = 107.242,P < 0.001; χ2/df = 2.553, adjusted goodness-of-fit index [GFI] = 0.889, GFI = 0.929, comparative fit index = 0.938, normed fit index = 0.903, Tucker–Lewis Index = 0.918, incremental fit index = 0.918, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.079 [90% confidence interval = 0.079 (0.061–0.098)]). Cronbach's alpha and construct reliability were 0.856 and 0.878, respectively, which indicates the good reliability of the HHI. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that the HHI-Persian version is a valid and reliable instrument that has potential utility in future research.
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The Association between Religious Belief and Drug Adherence Mediated by Religious Coping in Patients with Mental Disorders
Mohadeseh Movahedizadeh, Mohammad Reza Sheikhi, Saeed Shahsavari, Hui Chen
July-September 2019, 2(3):77-82
Introduction: Adherence to drug regimen is an important factor in the treatment of patients with mental disorders. In some studies, religious beliefs have been shown to be effective for treatment adherence. This study aimed to investigate the association between religious beliefs and adherence to the medication regimen mediated by religious coping in patients with mental disorders. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 164 patients with mental disorders were selected through convenient sampling from educational centers in Qazvin city. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, March Drug Adherence Questionnaire, Santaklara's Religious Faithfulness questionnaire, and Pargament Religious Coping questionnaire. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mean age of the patients was 38.87 ± 14.42 years. The mean duration of the disease was 5.71 ± 5.78 years. The mean of the religious belief score was 30.90 ± 5.96, the mean of the negative religious coping score was 2.17 ± 2.94, and the mean of positive religious coping score was 6.83 ± 4.69. There was a significant positive correlation between religious beliefs, adherence to medication regimen, and positive religious coping. There was a significant negative correlation between religious beliefs, adherence to medication regimen, and negative religious coping. Conclusion: There was a significant positive correlation between religious beliefs and adherence to medication regimen in patients with mental disorders. Religious beliefs were directly associated with positive religious coping, and adherence to medication regimen was indirectly associated with negative religious confrontation.
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Spiritual well-being and life satisfaction in pregnant women: the mediating role of social support
Masoumeh Niaghiha, Mohammad Moradi Baglooei, Maryam Mafi, Maryam Taherpour
July-September 2019, 2(3):83-88
Introduction: Life satisfaction is considered one of the basic concepts related to health, which is influenced by various factors including spiritual well-being. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between spiritual well-being and life satisfaction in relation to the mediating role of social support in pregnant women referred to Qazvin health-care centers, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018. Participants were 160 pregnant women referred to Qazvin health-care centers to receive prenatal care. Two-step sampling was performed considering the health-care centers as clusters. Questionnaires of demographic characteristics, Diener Life Satisfaction scale, Vaux Social Protection scale, and Dehshiri Spiritual Well-being scale were used to gather data. Data were analyzed using the Pearson's correlation coefficient test and mediation analysis via the SPSS software. Results: Life satisfaction was significantly correlated with spiritual well-being (r = 0.38) and social support (r = 0.39). In addition, there was a positive and significant relationship between spiritual well-being (r = 0.43) and social support (P < 0.01). Given the significant relationship between life satisfaction, social support, and spiritual well-being, and taking into account the mediating role of social support, spiritual well-being (b = 0.035) had an indirect effect on life satisfaction (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Social support can positively and meaningfully improve the relationship between spiritual well-being and life satisfaction in pregnant women. Therefore, interventions for the promotion of spiritual well-being and life satisfaction in pregnant women should take into account the role of social support.
  5,835 621 1
Impact of family psychoeducation on hospitalization and relapse of bipolar disorder in patients with mixed and manic episodes:A randomized controlled clinical trial
Mohsen Zamir, Marzieh Javani, Maryam Soleimannejad
July-September 2019, 2(3):96-101
Introduction: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder with frequent recurrences. Less than half of the patients with BD show good long-term response to treatment. Apart from pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation may be effective in reducing the symptoms and recurrence of BD, leading to improvements in patients' quality of life. In this study, we examined the effect of family psychoeducation on relapse rate and length of hospital stay in patients with BDs. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial (ethical committee number; IR.QUMS.REC.1394.136) was performed on 64 patients with BD at 22 Bahman Hospital of Qazvin, Iran. The patients were allocated into the following two groups: intervention and control groups. The patients in the control group received standard medical treatment, whereas those in the intervention group received 4 weekly sessions of family group psychoeducation, in addition to medical treatment. The patients were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale. The recurrence rate, disease severity, and quality of life in both groups were evaluated. The intervention and control groups were followed up for 9 months regarding recurrence and hospitalization, and the results were compared between the groups. Results: Data analysis showed a reduction in the frequency and duration of hospitalization in the group receiving family psychoeducation and was dependent on the patient's level of education, place of residence (town/village), duration of illness, and frequency of hospitalization before the intervention. Conclusion: In addition to pharmacotherapy, family psychoeducation can have an enormous impact on patients with BDs and limit or decrease the risk of recurrence.
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Effect of Participatory Health Promotion Initiative on Tobacco Use among Adolescents: A School-Based Quasi-Experimental Pilot Study from Central India
Shrinidhi S Datar, Priyadarsh Ture, Abhishek V Raut, White Coat Army Students Author Group
July-September 2019, 2(3):102-107
Introduction: Prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing rapidly in developing countries like India. The commonly attributable modifiable risk factors of NCDs include raised blood pressure (13%), tobacco use (9%), physical inactivity (6%), and obesity (5%). This quasi-experimental study with a pre-post design was conducted with an objective to assess the effect of Participatory Health Promotion initiative (PHPI) on tobacco use among adolescents. PHPI included distribution of personalized health card, tobacco-tar experiment demonstration, use of body mapping technique to emphasize hazards of tobacco on different body organs, and sensitization in small groups. Methods: Baseline tobacco use and health risk assessment were conducted by adapting WHO ASSIST tool among 200 students who were randomly selected from a secondary high school. All students in the school were then exposed to the PHPI. The postmeasurement was done among another 200 randomly selected students after 3 months. Results: The number of current tobacco users reduced from 29 (14.5%) in the baseline to 9 (4.5%) in the postmeasurement with a P < 0.001. Participants with a moderate risk of health hazard due to tobacco use decreased from 21 (72.4%) in the baseline to 5 (55.6%) in the postmeasurement. Students with a higher risk of health hazard because of tobacco use decreased from 6 (20.7%) in the baseline to 1 at the postmeasurement (11.1%). Conclusion: The school-based PHPI was effective in reducing the number of tobacco users among the Indian adolescents.
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Improving access to health-care services to improve the global life expectancy: world health organization's viewpoint
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
July-September 2019, 2(3):114-115
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