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   2020| April-June  | Volume 3 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 9, 2020

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To wear or not to wear? Factors influencing wearing face masks in Germany during the COVID-19 pandemic
Marc Oliver Rieger
April-June 2020, 3(2):50-54
Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been advised to wear masks. Attitudes toward wearing masks have not been investigated well. We want to provide data on whether and why people would be willing to wear masks in order to suggest ways for enhancing compliance. Methods: We conducted a survey among 206 participants on April 20 to 22, 2020. The sample mean age was 28 years, 63% of the participants were female, 64% were undergraduate or graduate students, and 51% had a university degree. Data from a previous study (n = 241, mean age of 26 years, 66% females, 83% students, 52% with a university degree) have also been used. Results: Fifty to eighty percent of the participants stated they would (probably) wear a mask (if they had one) in most scenarios. On the street, only 21% said they would. Demographic factors did not prove to be significant, whereas a university degree increased the likelihood of wearing a mask. Determining factors included worries about the current situation, self-protection, protecting others, thinking that wearing a mask looks strange, and being afraid of others' judgment when wearing a mask. The significance of these factors varies strongly between the age groups. Nearly all participants stated they would wear a mask if it were legally required, but compliance would be lower if the law required them to wear masks on the street. Surprisingly, there is no difference in attitudes toward masks as compared to the results of the previous survey from March 24 to 25, 2020. Conclusion: Legally requiring people to wear face masks seems to be an essentially effective instrument in this case. Studying the voluntary use of masks, we find that in different groups, wearing (or not wearing) a mask can be attributed to various reasons. Potential campaigns should therefore be tailor-made for different demographic groups.
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Policy actions to alleviate psychosocial impacts of COVID-19 pandemic: Experiences from Taiwan
Ming-Wei Lin, Yawen Cheng
April-June 2020, 3(2):72-73
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COVID-19 pandemic: Responding to the challenge of global shortage of personal protective equipment
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
April-June 2020, 3(2):70-71
The Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues its upward growth in terms of the rising caseload, attributed deaths as well as the geographical distribution. Owing to the sudden rise in the number of cases, the demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) has become very high and thus it resulted in their significant shortage. Hence, it is important to respond to the global shortage of PPE and this can be done by minimizing the need, promoting the rational use, and coordinating the supply chain mechanism. At the same time, steps should be taken to ensure more production of the PPE on an emergency basis. In conclusion, it is important to collectively respond to the shortage of PPE and ensure that they are available in adequate amount for the rational usage. However, the mere usage of PPE will not avert the possibility of acquisition of infection, unless it is supplemented with other standard infection prevention and control measures.
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Road traffic accidents among commercial motorcyclists: Relationship with substance use and psychosocial factors
Adetunji Obadeji, Banji Ferdinand Kumolalo, Janet Olufisayo Bamidele, Tolulope Funmilayo Olasehinde
April-June 2020, 3(2):43-49
Introduction: Road traffic accidents (RTAs) constitute a major source of death, morbidity, and disability, with a disproportionate number occurring in developing nations. This study was aimed at evaluating the rate of RTA among commercial motorcyclists and identified psycho-social as well as substance use variables associated with it. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among commercial motorcyclists in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Participants were assessed with sociodemographic questionnaire, the condensed Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test and Patient Health Questionnaire, the 9-item version. Chi-square tests and the odds of developing RTA were calculated for current substance use variables and other variables of interest. Results: Two hundred and thirty-four (51.3%) reported to have experienced one form of accident or the other, of which majority reported major injuries that necessitated hospital in-patient care and 3.0% had fatality. No significant association between history of RTA and sociodemographic characteristics (P > 0.05). Participants with a history of current marijuana use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.77 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.89–3.51]) tobacco use (OR = 1.45 [95% CI = 0.90–2.34]), alcohol use (OR = 1.49 [95% CI = 1.02–2.17]), and depression (OR = 1.50 [95%CI = 0.97–2.33]) had a higher risk of experiencing RTA compared to those without such history. Significantly, those with a history of current use any substance (OR = 1.55 [95% CI = 1.07–2.24]) (P = 0.04) and alcohol (OR = 1.49 [95% CI = 1.02–2.17]) (P = 0.02) were more likely to have had RTA compared to those without history of current use of any substance. Conclusion: There is a high rate of RTA among motorcyclists studied, with most reporting a major accident that required some form of hospital care, thus increasing the burden on the already over-burdened health systems. Among other factors, effort at reducing RTA among motorcyclists should also focus on reducing substance use.
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Effect of spouse's participation in childbirth preparation classes in the promotion of social support among pregnant women: A field trial
Zeinab Soltanshahi, Nezal Azh, Mark D Griffiths, Fatemeh Ranjkesh
April-June 2020, 3(2):55-61
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of spouse's participation in childbirth preparation classes in the promotion of social support among pregnant women. Methods: The present study was a field trial comprising 150 pregnant women who participated in the childbirth preparation classes of health centers in Alvin and Mohammadiehin Qazvin (Iran). Pregnant women were selected using the convenience sampling and were randomly divided into two groups (i.e. intervention and control groups using block allocation). The intervention group participated in eight sessions of childbirth preparation classes with their spouses. The control group participated in eight sessions of childbirth preparation classes based on the protocol developed by the Iran Ministry of Health. The Social Support Survey (SSS) was completed before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the descriptive and analytical statistics tests such as Mann–Whitney and Friedman's through the SPSS software version 24. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean score on the SSS before sessions in the intervention and control group was 60.65 (standard deviation [SD] ± 6.69) and 61.63 (SD ± 4.97), respectively (P < 0.05). After sessions, the mean score of social support statistically significantly increased in the intervention group as compared to the control group (83.31 [SD ± 8.91] vs. 60.65 [SD ± 0.80]; P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results suggest that the presence of spouses in preparation classes for childbirth along with modified content of the sessions promotes social support among pregnant women. Based on these findings, participation in parental training for childbirth is recommended for couples.
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The Effectiveness of group counseling based on problem-solving on experiencing domestic violence among pregnant women: A clinical trial
Masoumeh Alamshahi, Forouzan Olfati, Saeed Shahsavari, Maryam Taherpour
April-June 2020, 3(2):62-69
Introduction: Domestic violence is highly prevalent during pregnancy and affects both the mother and fetus. Problem-solving training showed to be useful in controlling different crises of life including anger and aggression. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group counseling based on problem-solving on experiencing domestic violence among pregnant women. Methods: This study is a clinical trial which was conducted on eighty pregnant women referred to Buin Zahra urban centers in 2019. The individuals were randomly divided into intervention (n = 40) and control (n = 40) groups. Six 45-min sessions for five groups of eight people were implemented for the intervention group. The violence was examined before, immediately, and 3 months after the intervention using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale instrument. Sociodemographics and obstetrics characteristics were compared using Chi-square. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance at a significance level of < 0.05. Results: The baseline characteristics were homogeneous between the two groups. After intervention, the mean score of violence decreased statistically significantly for the intervention group versus control group immediately after (159.28 vs. 190.98, P < 0.001) and 3 months after the intervention (117.85 vs. 198.9, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Group counseling based on problem-solving is effective on the level of domestic violence among pregnant women. Therefore, using this method of counseling during pregnancy can be associated with positive results in reducing domestic violence.
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Twin-center study comparing stigma among males and females with alcohol dependence
Megha Sadashiv, Anil Kakunje, Ravichandra Karkal, Sadashivaiah H Ganganna
April-June 2020, 3(2):38-42
Introduction: Alcohol dependence is a complex disorder that affects brain function and behavior, characterized by impaired functioning, causing considerable harm to the individuals with the disorders and to society as a whole. Stigma associated with substance use is considered a significant barrier to detection and treatment efforts, and research is needed to understand and address this issue. This study aimed to assess and compare stigma among males and females with alcohol dependence. Methods: The twin-center study involved 70 patients with alcohol dependence, which included 35 males and 35 females from the Department of Psychiatry, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore, and Abyudaya Center for Humanity and Rural Development, Integrated Rehabilitation Center for Addiction, Tumkur, India. The mean age of males was 39.14 years and females 41.00 years. The Substance Use Stigma Mechanisms Scale was used to assess stigma. The study had outpatients and inpatients who were above 18 years of age and diagnosed with alcohol dependence as per the ICD-10 criteria, not under the influence of alcohol at the time of interview and without any comorbid psychiatric illness except nicotine dependence. Results: The study showed anticipated stigma more in females (mean: 2.30) compared to males (mean: 1.91) which could be a significant factor for treatment-seeking behavior. Internalized stigma was more in males (mean: 3.84) compared to females (mean: 2.90). Enacted stigma did not show a significant difference between the two genders in our study. Conclusion: Persons with alcohol dependence experience stigma, and we found that there is a gender difference. Stigma associated with substance use is considered a significant barrier to detection and treatment efforts. Understanding various aspects of stigma will help in providing better management.
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Association between self-rated health and quality of life with sleep quality among bangladeshi university students
Md Sabbir Ahmed, Liton Chandra Sen, Mark D Griffiths
April-June 2020, 3(2):35-37
Introduction: Poor sleep quality is adversely affecting student's mental health. However, the impact of poor sleep quality on student's health and quality of life (QOL) has not been previously studied in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to assess the association between self-rated health (SRH) and QOL of university students with their sleep quality. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey was carried out among 332 students of Patuakhali Science and Technology University (Bangladesh) aged from 18 to 25 years (mean = 21.6 years; standard deviation ± 1.7). Data were collected through one-to-one interviews using a pretested structured questionnaire. Results: There was a significant association between SRH and QOL with sleep quality. Students experiencing poor sleep quality had a 2.4 times higher risk for poor SRH (odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–4.95, P = 0.012) The OR of poor QOL was 3.3 times higher among the students whose sleep quality was poor (OR = 3.38, 95% CI: 1.70–6.75, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Study findings indicated that poor sleep quality adversely affects the health status and QOL of Bangladeshi university students. University authorities in Bangladesh should develop programs to improve the overall health and sleep quality of the students.
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