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   2020| July-September  | Volume 3 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 27, 2020

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Mental health problems and impact on youth minds during the COVID-19 outbreak: Cross-sectional (RED-COVID) survey
Deepak Nathiya, Pratima Singh, Supriya Suman, Preeti Raj, Balvir Singh Tomar
July-September 2020, 3(3):83-88
DOI:10.4103/SHB.SHB_32_20  
Introduction: The COVID-19 outbreak had impacted humankind with herculean force. Extensive Indian population which comprises youths are going through psychological resilience due to isolation, contact transmission, and economic crisis. Methods: A cross-sectional study among youth Indian citizens aged 15–30 years through social media platforms was conducted. The survey instrument consisted of demographic characteristics, assessment psychological impact by Depression, Anxiety and Stress-21 scale, and four items on COVID-19 stressors. Results: Out of 684 responses from red containment zones, 474 participants completed the study. Overall, moderate-to-severe stress, anxiety, and depression were 37.36%, 30.89%, and 24.63% in youths, respectively. Mental health outcomes were associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.70–4.46), marital status (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.47–3.88), residence in rural area (OR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.74–4.78), and postgraduate qualification (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 0.74–3.36). Economical stressors, physical illness, and changes in daily life were found to be positive predictors of mental health problems. Conclusion: Our finding suggested requirement psychological intervention targeting youth living in rural areas especially women through government schemes irrespective of educational status.
  27,011 2,174 18
Triggering altruism increases the willingness to get vaccinated against COVID-19
Marc Oliver Rieger
July-September 2020, 3(3):78-82
DOI:10.4103/SHB.SHB_39_20  
Introduction: Once a vaccine against COVID-19 is available, the question of how to convince as many people as possible to get vaccinated will arise. We test three different strategies to reach this goal: two selfish motivations (highlighting personal survival risk or the inconveniences in the event of getting infected) and altruism (reducing the danger for individuals who cannot be vaccinated or remain vulnerable even after getting vaccinated). Methods: We conduct an online experiment with N = 303 subjects (64% female, 79% university students, average age 26 years) with the three aforementioned treatments and compare the treatment effects on vaccination willingness with the baseline. Results: Results suggest a positive effect of all treatments, but the treatment where reducing the danger for individuals who cannot be vaccinated was highlighted was by far the most effective. Conclusion: This result implies that this rarely discussed aspect should be given more attention to increase the willingness to get vaccinated against COVID-19.
  17,661 1,645 30
REVIEW ARTICLE
COVID-19 infection risk in pakistani health-care workers: The cost-effective safety measures for developing countries
Norina Usman, Mohammed A Mamun, Irfan Ullah
July-September 2020, 3(3):75-77
DOI:10.4103/SHB.SHB_26_20  
To combat the massive COVID-19 infection rates, the health-care workers (HCWs) are likely to work for long hours under substantial pressures, along with the infection risk. The consequence is that the HCWs become progressively hesitant to their works and psychologically impaired. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the health-care facilities are limited; hence, the HCWs safety measures are a great concern. Thus, these country needs a cost-effective strategy focusing on sympathetic discussions, that can be beneficial to reduce the psychological sufferings by ensuring the protection of the HCWs to facilitate proper services in combating with the COVID-19 crisis– which is provided in this commentary.
  12,589 854 22
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on general self-efficacy, self-control, and internet addiction prevalence among medical university students
Isa Mohammadi Zeidi, Shahla Divsalar, Hadi Morshedi, Hamid Alizadeh
July-September 2020, 3(3):93-102
DOI:10.4103/SHB.SHB_20_20  
Introduction: Various studies have highlighted the high prevalence of psychological and psychiatric problems among students with Internet addiction (IA). This study aimed to determine the effect of GCBT on self-control, self-efficacy as well as the prevalence of IA amongst students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences (QUMS). Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 80 students addicted to the Internet. Participants were randomly divided into control (without intervention) and treatment group (GCBT). The experimental group participated in a GCBT program consisted of 10 two2-hour sessions based on psychosocial training, cognitive reconstruction, behavior modification, and improving emotion regulation. Data were collected using demographic information, Yang IA test, brief self-control scale, and compulsive iInternet usage scale before and 3 months after GCBT. Results: The Rfindings demonstrated significant improvements in general self-efficacy (21.90 ± 5.1-–27.31 ± 3.9, F = 46.131, df = 1, P < 0.001) and self-control (33.03 ± 4.7-–44.78 ± 6.1, F = 59.252, df = 1, P < 0.001), while compulsive Internet usage (41.41 ± 6.35-–25.13 ± 3.97, F = 163.359, df = 1, P < 0.001) and IA (60.83 ± 9.95-–36.10 ± 5.16, F = 183.302, df = 1, P < 0.001) were remarkably reduced in the experimental group after GCBT. Conclusion: This study suggests that GCBT can be an effective treatment for those college students struggling with IA, with improving the psychological variables affecting IA.
  7,063 762 4
Knowledge of mental health law and attitude toward mental illness among attorneys in Nigeria
Oluyemi O Akanni, Nosa G Igbinomwanhia, Adegboyega Ogunwale, Adeagbo F Osundina
July-September 2020, 3(3):110-116
DOI:10.4103/SHB.SHB_24_20  
Introduction: There are legal provisions for the protection of those who are mentally ill, and law officers may have a role in this regard. Few, if any studies have attempted to investigate the knowledge about and attitude towards mental illness among the members of the legal profession. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey conducted among attorneys in Benin-City, Edo State, South-South, Nigeria, using a 21-item knowledge/attitude questionnaire. Results: Seventy-five attorneys who filled the questionnaire were in the age range of 23 and 65 years, with more males (69.3%), more married (60.8%), and more private defense attorneys (79.2%) participating. A greater proportion (64.8%) had not adjudicated for persons with mental illness, and a few (22.2%) would not agree to solicit for them. Only a few were accurate about when the Nigerian mental health law was enacted (9.3%), what it says about the treatment of the mentally ill persons (3.0%), and the handling of the property of the same (3.1%). Although only a minority (7.1%) were familiar with the provisions of the insanity defense under section 28 of the criminal code, most (85.9%) identified correctly the disposal of a mentally ill person found unfit to plead according to the criminal procedure act. Conclusion: Lawyers in the study appeared to have very little experiential knowledge about mental illness, demonstrated a poor level of knowledge regarding mental health laws as well as criminal provisions regarding mentally abnormal offenders. There is a need to improve training content in Legal education in Nigeria with regard to legislation affecting both civil and criminal aspects of mental disorder.
  4,958 367 1
Social determinants of menstrual hygiene among school-going girls in a rural area of Southern Haryana, India
Avinash Surana, DR Rajesh, Rakesh Tank, Abhishek Singh, Vikas Gupta, Deepika Agrawal, Virender Kumar Chhoker
July-September 2020, 3(3):117-123
DOI:10.4103/SHB.SHB_33_20  
Introduction: Several factors associated with menstrual hygiene are modifiable and if such factors are identified and addressed, it can go a long way in promoting good menstrual hygiene practice among adolescent girls. The present study was conducted with an aim to investigate the social determinants for menstrual hygiene-related knowledge and practices among rural school-going girls. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 649 school-going girls (12–19 years) from two government schools. A pretested, predesigned, standardized questionnaire was prepared which included demographic details such as age, sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge regarding menstruation, restrictions practiced, absenteeism during menstruation, the practice of menstrual hygiene. Multiple logistic regression model at a significant level of 0.05 was used. Results: The mean age of menarche in the study population was 12.8 ± 1.73 years. Mother's education and family socioeconomic status showed a trend with poor menstrual hygiene. The study participants belonging to the age group of 12–14 years were nearly 2.3 times more likely to have poor hygiene practices than the study participants belonging to the age group of 18 years or more. Absence of sanitary latrines (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65–3.31, P = 0.000), lower class in school (adjusted OR: 11.65, 95% CI: 7.19–18.86, P = 0.010), and joint families (adjusted OR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.42–3.32, P = 0.022) also showed a high positive association with the odds of practicing poor menstrual hygiene. Conclusion: This study reveals that adolescent girls in rural area had ignorance, false perceptions, and unsafe practices regarding menstruation. Thus, the above findings reinforce the need to encourage safe and hygienic practices among the adolescent girls and bring them out of the traditional beliefs, misconceptions, and restrictions regarding menstruation.
  4,870 437 1
Clinical, cognitive, and sociodemographic variables in melancholic versus nonmelancholic depression
Samin Sameed, Mathews Joseph Panicker, Rohan Dilip Mendonsa, Anil Kakunje, Ravichandra Karkal
July-September 2020, 3(3):103-109
DOI:10.4103/SHB.SHB_28_20  
Introduction: The “biological” symptoms in some depressive illnesses are loss of sleep, appetite and weight, psychomotor changes, decreased libido, etc., Those in the remaining forms of depression include anxiety, phobias, and obsessional symptoms. These two groups of symptoms constitute melancholic and nonmelancholic depression, respectively. This research aimed at studying the clinical, cognitive, and sociodemographic profiles in melancholic and nonmelancholic depression. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital among 60 in-patients over a period of 1 year following clearance from the Institutional Ethics Committee. Among the total 60 participants enrolled, 30 met criteria for depression with melancholic features and 30 had depression without melancholic features according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Patients were administered a specialized pro forma to record the demographic, medical, psychiatric, and other relevant clinical data. Hamilton's Depression Rating Scale was used for assessing severity of depression; Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE) Questionnaire was used to assess melancholic features; and cognitive assessment was done using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and semantic verbal fluency test. Suicide ideation was assessed using the Modified Suicide Ideation Scale. Results: Our study showed a statistically significant difference in CORE score, MMSE, semantic verbal fluency, and Modified Suicide Ideation Sscale scores, all with P < 0.001 in the melancholic group compared to nonmelancholic group; however, Hamilton depression scores were not significantly different between them with P < 0.264. Conclusion: Melancholic depression differs from nonmelancholic depression in various clinical and cognitive aspects, with more cognitive deficits and suicide ideation in the melancholic group.
  3,442 330 -
Baseline and postintervention assessment of sexual violence and condom use among female sex workers in a semiurban African community
Ali Johnson Onoja, Felix Olaniyi Sanni, John Shaibu, Sheila Onoja, Daniel Oguche, Imam Adamu, Paul Olaiya Abiodun
July-September 2020, 3(3):124-129
DOI:10.4103/SHB.SHB_29_20  
Introduction: Sexual violence, which usually involves forced unprotected sex, is very common among sex workers in West Africa. The incidence of HIV in the rural towns and villages is being propelled by risky behaviors such as unprotected sex more prevalent among key population groups including sex workers. The present study aims at comparing sexual violence and condom use among women in Brothel in Bonny Island to assess the impact of a 3 years community-based intervention. Methods: The present study is a quantitative study involving female sex workers in Bonny Island in two surveys; baseline and postintervention. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the information such as the demographics, sexual violence, and condom use. The data obtained were analyzed using the IBM-SPSS version 25.0. Results: There were 261 and 186 participants in baseline and the postintervention surveys, respectively. The majority 127 (48.7%) and 55 (29.6%) of the participants in both surveys were adolescents aged 14–24 years. Overall, 140/261 (53.6%) have ever been forced to have sex in the baseline study and 24/261 (12.9%) in postintervention. Those that have ever been forced to have sex without a condom were 68 (26.1%) baseline and 20 (10.8%) postintervention. Overall, 59.9% of baseline participants used condom in the last sexual act as compared to 89.6% in postintervention. Furthermore, 42.4% of baseline participants used condom in all the last 5 sexual acts as compared to 85.2% in the postintervention. In the baseline, 40.2% had problems using a condom in the past 2 months as compared to 3.1% after the intervention. Conclusion: This study found a drastic reduction in sexual violence against sex workers due to the community-based intervention. Furthermore, there was an increase in the use of condom among the study participants. It is advocated that community-based intervention should be encouraged and consistent in the HIV prevention and control programs, especially in the grassroots.
  3,425 317 1
Attitudes toward suicide: A comparison between urban and rural dwellers in Ghana
Emma Sethina Adjaottor, Daniel Kwasi Ahorsu
July-September 2020, 3(3):89-92
DOI:10.4103/SHB.SHB_27_20  
Introduction: Appropriate attitudes toward suicide (ATTS) is key to preventing suicide, a major mental health challenge worldwide. Hence, this study examined the differences between urban and rural dwellers on ATTS (in total and across the subscales – principal attitude (suicide as a right), representations of intentionality, tabooing, preventability of suicide, and knowledge (myths about suicide). Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used in this study. A convenient sampling technique was used to select 400 respondents from urban (n = 200) and rural (n = 200) areas. A questionnaire packet comprising a self-designed demographic section and valid ATTS scale was used for the data collection from respondents (urban and rural dwellers). Descriptive (frequency and percentages) and inferential (independent t-test) statistics were used to analyze the data using SPSS software. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Both urban and rural dwellers were found to have negative ATTS with urban dwellers (131.40 ± 10.75) having significantly more negative ATTS (P = 0.000) than rural dwellers (118.59 ± 13.62). Furthermore, urban dwellers were found to have significantly more negative attitudes toward principal attitude (suicide as a right), representations of intentionality, tabooing, preventability of suicide, and knowledge (myths about suicide) than rural dwellers (P = 0.000). Conclusion: Settings influence ATTS such that urban dwellers have become more informed and more prepared to help prevent suicide compared with their rural counterparts.
  3,366 346 -
COMMENTARY
Roping-In religious leaders and faith experts in the effective containment of the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
July-September 2020, 3(3):130-131
DOI:10.4103/SHB.SHB_16_20  
  3,114 328 4